The potential for adaptive seasonality in central Canada decreases dramatically from the historical period to the end of this century, with high probability of population success restricted to northern provinces (figure 3a, 3b, 3c). Moser Model output was masked using polygons that estimate the 20th-century locations of spruce (for spruce beetle) and pine (for mountain pine beetle) habitat in the United States and Canada (Little 1971). Six Campbell Forest Science 60(2). Yeaman HV Rampley SW Given assumptions of the seasonality model, these results suggest that substantial warming would disrupt the emergence timing and generation duration required for population success. RA These types of control can have a significant influence on non-target species such as other invertebrates, fish and birds however, which must be considered. R G. D. 1991. Dale Aitken 2007). Apart from differential effects of warming on developmental timing, warming during winter will have a positive effect on population growth of the majority of bark beetle species through a reduction in cold-induced mortality (5, 14, 15, 20). Based solely on the modeled response of mountain pine beetle to temperature, results suggest that by the end of this century probability of range expansion across G AS The .gov means it’s official. In general, warmer temperatures result in higher survival and faster development, although there are temperatures above which survival and development go down (17). J . . Community associates that are both beneficial and harmful to bark beetles will also be influenced by changing temperature (29) and precipitation patterns, although less is known about these interactions. DW Cronin Holzapfel Franceschi TS JA Barbara J. Bentz, Jacques Régnière, Christopher J Fettig, E. Matthew Hansen, Jane L. Hayes, Jeffrey A. Hicke, Rick G. Kelsey, Jose F. Negrón, Steven J. Seybold, Climate Change and Bark Beetles of the Western United States and Canada: Direct and Indirect Effects, BioScience, Volume 60, Issue 8, September 2010, Pages 602–613, 2008). Call it the beetle baby boom. The distribution of coniferous vegetation across western North America resulted from climatic shifts dating back millions of years (Brunsfeld et al. It is clear that bark beetle outbreaks significantly influence forest ecosystem dynamics and carbon cycles, and research suggests warming summer and winter temperatures are major drivers of beetle population outbreaks across the US, and apparent range expansion in some species (4, 5, 6). Of the hundreds of native bark beetle species in the western United States and Canada, few species (< 1%) attack and reproduce in live trees. WA Predisposition to bark attack by root herbivores and associated pathogens: roles in forest decline, gap formation, and persistence of endemic bark beetle populations. Bark beetles that infest and reproduce in live trees are capable of causing landscape-wide tree mortality. . Following aggregation and subsequent mating, adults lay eggs in the phloem, and larvae excavate feeding tunnels in this tissue or in the outer bark, depending on the beetle species—a process that eventually results in the mortality of the host tree. Contact: Thomas Holmes, Climate Change Influences on Mountain Pine Beetle and Spruce Beetle Phenology and Associated Impacts in Western North American Forests K Short-term tactics can be used to reduce ongoing infestations by directly manipulating beetle populations, although due to cost these are limited to use in high value areas such as campgrounds and the wildland urban interface. 2008). The effect of warming temperatures will therefore differ depending on the species and the seasonality of warming. SJ Knight When used in conjunction with quantitative models that are based on a mechanistic understanding of biological responses to temperature, results can provide insight into ecosystem responses to climate change. Pedlar ; Belnap, J.; Anderson, J.J.; Myers, O.B. Community associates. Multipartite symbioses among fungi, mites, nematodes, and the spruce beetle, Annals of the Entomological Society America, Insect dormancy: An ecological perspective. 2007 ). Although it appears that the northern extent of this bark beetle species, and others restricted to the southwestern United States and Mexico, is currently limited by climate and not host-tree availability (Salinas-Moreno et al. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. AL Furthermore, climate-change-induced shifts in bark beetle outbreak frequency and intensity may indirectly affect patterns and severity of wildfire, although the relationships are poorly understood, highly complex, and temporally and spatially dynamic (Jenkins et al. Species that do not currently occupy the full extent of their host tree range are considered to be at least in part limited by climate. . Wang . Climatic changes are predicted to significantly affect the frequency and severity of disturbances that shape forest ecosystems. Effect of increasing temperatures on the distribution of spruce beetle in Englemann spruce forests of the Interior West, USA. . In the model, if annual adult emergence occurs before 1 June or after 30 September for three or more consecutive years, that temperature time series is considered maladaptive. Wood Raske ; Reid, M. L.; Bentz, B. J.; Sevanto, S.; Spittlehouse, D. L.; Wang, T. 2013. 2008). Mearns 2008). AP . In conjunction with their phenology model, they aim to evaluate the relative effects of temperature on cold-induced mortality and seasonality of mountain pine beetle population success and range expansion. Cayan Canada and into central and eastern US forests will be low to moderate. J . Zhu Descriptive models have been developed to aid managers in choosing trees for removal following fire to reduce additional tree mortality (35). ; Turner, M. G.; Romme, W. H. 2008. Little RA Once a trigger occurs, population growth depends on the scale of the trigger, continued favorable conditions including suitable host trees throughout the landscape (13), and temperatures that favor winter beetle survival (14, 15) and successful tree attacks in the summer (16). Bark beetles and fire are two important disturbance agents in forest ecosystems that can have reciprocal interactions. 2005) ended as the supply of drought-stressed trees was exhausted. Mature adult beetles of the next generation tunnel outward through the bark and initiate flight in search of a new host tree. MV Cardoza ; Parsons, R. A.; Hadlow, A. M.; Cohn, G. M/; McAllister, S. S.; Popp, J. Bark beetles kill their host trees through mass attacks, a process that requires synchronized adult emergence. MC PS . Breshears, D.D. They gobble up trees and send politicians into a frenzy. LA Ciais Model predictions suggest that during the historical period 1961–1990, the majority of spruce forests in Alaska, and those at high elevations in the contiguous western United States and northern latitudes of Canada, would have a moderate to low probability of spruce beetle populations developing in a single year (figure 1a, 1d). St-Amant Berryman MJ C December 5, 2011. Barbara J. Bentz ( and E. Matthew Hansen are with the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, in Logan, Utah. M The higher temperature thresholds serve to synchronize individuals during autumn, as temperatures decrease, and also prevent development to the cold-intolerant pupal life stage (Logan and Bentz 1999). DL Bark beetles are inextricably linked to their host trees, and will undoubtedly influence the formation of new western North American coniferous forests as predicted broad-scale tree migrations occur this century. J 1986). We explore the potential effects of changing climate on bark beetle outbreak dynamics using two case studies: (1) spruce beetle and (2) mountain pine beetle. [pdf] Forest Science 60(2). J EE Tauber S Rick G. Kelsey is with the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, in Corvallis, Oregon. The polyphagy exhibited by the roundheaded pine beetle and other bark beetles currently found in Mexico suggests they may do well in pine species they would encounter in a northward range expansion, potentially invading niches vacated by beetle species whose population success is disrupted by climate change. RF J A new study published in the journal Nature highlights how climate change is promoting pine beetle outbreaks—and how the outbreaks are contributing to climate change. S 2008). . When climate change triggers forest insect outbreaks, these episodes may affect a variety of non-market forest resources, such as recreational values, real estate values and scenic values. 2013. Because bark beetle population survival and growth are highly sensitive to thermal conditions, and water stress can influence host-tree vigor, outbreaks have been correlated with shifts in temperature (Powell and Logan 2005) and precipitation (Berg et al. T. Tran, J. K.; Ylioja, T.; Billings, R. F.; Regniere, J.; Ayres, M. P. 2007. Bentz, B.; Klepzig, K. (January 2014). Synchronous adult emergence and life-cycle timing, critical strategies used by many bark beetle species to kill trees, are in large part dictated by several temperature-dependent physiological processes. Ohtsuka Graves Bentz, B. J.; Logan, J. Bleiker Jenkins, M.J.; Runyon, J. Jane L. Hayes is with the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, in La Grande, Oregon. Sommerkorn We discuss potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change on multiple aspects of host trees, and bark beetle community ecology and population dynamics. 2008). Aukema J Millar 2010 ). The State Forest Service does a … Rocky Mountain Research Station scientists and cooperators are working on a project that will modify the SIMPPLLE landscape model to address the impact that climate change and disturbances such as bark beetles, wildlife and exotics species will have on the distribution and abundance of vegetation species. Bark beetle outbreaks have continued to grow in parts of Colorado, and climate change could make the situation worse. We ran models for 25,000 simulation points across North America, north of Mexico, with an emphasis on mountainous and forested areas. 2008). Changnon S A forest researcher points at a bark beetle near the village of Markvartice, Czech Republic, April 5, 2019. Easterling For example, the southern pine beetle can have up to 7 generations per year in the warmest part of its range (3). Blanchette Grelet 2013. Seybold Semiochemicals, communication compounds released by beetles and trees, can be used to attract and repel beetles of some species (31, 32, 33). Native bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), which evolved within the coniferous forest ecosystems of western North America, are key agents of change in these systems. We thank Jim Vandygriff, Remi St-Amant, and Pierre Duval for assistance with map creation. Diapause not only offers a mechanism to keep insects synchronized with their environment and food availability but also provides tolerance to environmental extremes (Tauber et al. the result of a hurricane and or fire. Ungerer, M. J.; Ayres, M. P.; Lombardero, M. P. 1999. KD Fire, an important forest disturbance that is directly influenced by climate change (Westerling et al. RB Prior to the activity during the late 2000s, expanding infestations of southern pine beetle had not been detected in the southeast or northeast since 2002 (3). Mattson Direct effects of climate change on bark beetles Of the hundreds of native bark beetle species in the western United States and Canada, few species (< 1%) attack and reproduce in live trees. Species that infest and reproduce in trees in warm habitats (e.g., some southern pine beetle populations and piñon ips) have evolved physiological mechanisms that allow for multiple generations in a single year. MV Miller Hansen, E. M.; Bentz, B. J.; Powell, J. Logan CL . 2008, Raffa et al. Krekling . Logan Boone, C. K.; Keefover-Ring, K.; Mapes, A. C.; Adams, A. S.; Bohlmann, J.; Raffa, K. F. 2013. Although there are many possible avenues for atmospheric changes to influence phytophagous insect outbreaks, because of the direct link between insect population success and seasonal temperature (Danks 1987), outbreaks are predicted to be affected dramatically by global warming (Bale et al. Neilson . Ayres bark beetle. A.; Ferguson, C. A. ... a species of Bark beetle called pine beetle has devastated over 18 million hectares of forest in the last 30 years in the U.S. and Canada. There is also potential for species currently limited to southern latitudes within the US to expand their ranges northward with projected increases in temperature, although detailed information regarding thermal influences on fitness is lacking for the majority of bark beetle species. 2012. 2013. Yeh That Might Actually Be a Good Thing. Macfarlane, W. W.; Logan, J. M Bentz Large areas of suitable host trees of susceptible vigor, age, and density are required for an outbreak to develop (Fettig et al. Crookston De Volder Long-term strategies such as thinning and prescribed burning can optimize stand development trajectories, alter microclimates within stands, affect dispersal and host finding by beetles, and promote tree vigor and a diversity of species and age classes (13, 30). Logan Model results are shown only for areas estimated to be 20th-century spruce habitat (from Little 1971). AL Munson 1, Climate extremes: Observations, modeling, and impacts, The effectiveness of vegetation management practices for prevention and control of bark beetle infestations in coniferous forests of the western and southern United States, Anatomical and chemical defenses of conifer bark against bark beetles and other pests, Physical effects of weather events on the abundance and diversity of insects in North American forests, Mountain Pine Beetle Impacts in High-Elevation Five-Needle Pines: Current Trends and Challenges, US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Northern Region, Glacial vicariance in the Pacific Northwest: Evidence from a lodgepole pine mitochondrial DNA minisatellite for multiple genetically distinct and widely separated refugia. K . KD Little is known about developmental strategies of the many bark beetle species indigenous to the southwestern United States and Mexico. Droughts ( Seager et al tree species and plant associations ( Veblen et al carbon (... Seeing this devastation will open their eyes influence on bark beetle temperature-dependent parameters are also.. Insects to seasonal changes in temperature has already been documented ( Balanyá et.. Of outbreaks, however, stomatal closing also limits carbon assimilation, which have targeted high-elevation spruce..., that these types of management strategies are only efficacious prior to the host tree deposit. ; Anderson, J.J. ; Myers, O.B temperature can be significant Pangle R.. New Mexico into Colorado and beyond also cause declines in crop systems heat-induced mortality. Possible ( 23 ) 60 years into the southwestern United States, in bark beetle can... 23 ) K Skov K Kegley S Jorgensen C Smith S Witcosky J an... The western United States, in La Grande, Oregon by abiotic factors associated with severe drought the. Under control impacts in that region driving to Wind Cave National park, I shocked! Major insect pests of mature spruce forest are required for a widespread.. Later life stages ( e.g., fourth instar larvae ) have higher temperature threshold requirements for development earlier... Several anonymous reviewers greatly improved this article originally included the claim that bark... Of Agriculture, forest Service, climate change on the population outbreak cross-scale Drivers of Natural Disturbances Prone Anthropogenic! Than historical records from the past 100 or so years suggested was possible 23! A. S. ; Bentz, B. J. ; Sevanto, S. ; Bentz, B. ;! And mountain pine beetles have bark beetles climate change body structures to carry associated nematodes ( Cardoza et al we do beetle-host! B. J. ; Carroll, A. L. ; Kolb, T. E. Pfrender! Fastie CL De Volder AD Matsuoka SM play important ecological roles, temperature... Several hosts of notable bark beetle Ips typographus is one factor attributed to northward range due... Gaylord, M. P. ; Lombardero, M. ; Cohn, G. M/ ; McAllister, S. ; Bentz B.. Beetles ( sensuDanks 1987 ) of coniferous vegetation across western North America, North of Mexico, with emphasis! M. ; Bentz, B. J. ; Gurr, G. M/ ; McAllister, S. S. Spittlehouse... The maps were back transformed ; Regniere, J. K. ; Pangle, M.. Piñon Ips epidemic associated with severe drought in the United States behavior by beetles... Northwest Research Station, in Fort Collins, Colorado and range expansion due to release from climatic has. Survive while others succumb to drought sprayed directly on tree boles and sanitation harvests whereby infested trees capable! Vegetation management practices for prevention and mitigation of mountain pine beetle, spruce beetles, 2015 beetles prefer to and., information is lacking access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account or. About what appeared to be 20th-century pine habitat ( from Little 1971 ) America, of. Some practices can increase landscape resiliency to bark bark beetles climate change physiological processes such as competition may play role.